Quantitative Research Proposal (Thesis)
A study which basically uses deductive-inductive approach. This approach departs from a theoretical framework, the notion of experts, or understanding the researcher based on her experiences, later developed into the problems and their solutions-the solutions proposed to obtain justification (verification) in the form of empirical data support in the field.
Quantitative Research Proposal Format
In this section noted the gap between expectation and reality, both theoretical gap or gaps underlying practical problems examined. In the background of this issue briefly described the theory, research findings, conclusions and discussion of scientific seminars or experience / personal observation closely linked with the subject matter studied. Thus, the problem of getting chosen for the research foundation more solid footing. (See the introduction)
2. Problem Formulation
Formulation of the problem is an attempt to state explicitly the questions you want to look for the answer. Formulation of the problem is a complete and detailed statement about the scope of issues to be examined based on the identification and restriction problems. The formulation of the problem should be formulated in a brief, concise, clear and manifested in a question sentence. A good formulation of the problem will reveal the variables studied, the type or nature of the relationship between these variables, and subjects. In addition, the formulation of the problem should be tested empirically, in the sense that allows collected data to answer the questions posed. Example: Is there a relationship between intelligence level of junior high students with their academic achievement in mathematics lesson?. (Tips for making the formulation of the problem)
3. Research Objectives
The purpose of the study revealed the target to be achieved in the research. The content and formulation of research objectives based on the content and formulation of research problems. The difference lies in how to formulate it. Research problems are formulated using squid sentence, while the formulation of research objectives set forth in the form of sentence statement. Example: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between intelligence level of junior high school students with their academic achievement in mathematics lesson.
4. Research Hypothesis (if any)
Not all quantitative research requires a hypothesis of the study. Kluantitatif research that is exploratory, descriptive and does not require the hypothesis. Therefore the research hypothesis section should not exist in the thesis, thesis, or dissertation results of quantitative research. The procedural hypothesis proposed study after researchers conducted literature review, because the research hypothesis is a summary of the theoretical conclusions obtained from literature review. The hypothesis is a temporary answer to the problem of theoretical research that is considered most likely and highest level of truth. But technically, the research hypotheses stated in Chapter I (Introduction) for the relationship between the problems studied and possible answers become clearer. Based on this, then in the background of the problem is there should be an exposition of the relevant literature review in a concise form.
The formulation of the hypothesis should be definitive or directional. That is, in the formulation of hypotheses not only mentioned the existence of relationships or differences antarvariabel, but has shown the nature of relationships or circumstances that difference. Example: There is a positive relationship between level of intelligence junior high students with their academic achievement in mathematics lesson.
If formulated in the form of the distinction of being: Students whose level of junior high intelligence have higher academic achievement in mathematics lesson as compared to the level of intelligence is. The formulation of the hypothesis that both should be: (a) declare linkage between two or more variables, (b) set forth in the form of a question sentence, (c) formulated a short, dense, and clear, and (d) can be tested empirically.
5. Usability Research
In this section demonstrated usefulness or importance of research, especially for the development of science or the implementation of development in a broad sense. In other words, the description section usefulness in the feasibility study contains reasons for the problem under study. From the description in this section is expected to be concluded that research on selected problems are feasible.
6. Research Assumptions (if necessary)
Assumption of research is basic assumptions about a matter that made footing think and act in conducting the research. For example, researchers propose the assumption that a person's attitude can be measured using the attitude scale. In this case he did not need to prove the truth of things diasumsikannya it, but can immediately take advantage of the attitude measurement results obtained. Assumptions can be either substantive or methodological. Substantive Assumptions related to research problems, while the methodological assumptions with regard to research methodology.
7. Research Scope and Limitations
Presented on the scope of the variables studied, the population or the subject of research, and research sites. In this section the translation of variables can also be presented along with indicators subvariabel. Limitations of the study do not have to exist in the thesis, theses, and dissertations. However, limitations are often necessary for readers to respond to the findings of the study in accordance with existing conditions.Limitations of the study refers to a situation that can not be avoided in the study.Limitations often faced about two things. First, the limited scope of review that had to be done for reasons of procedural, technical research, or due to logistical factors. Second, the limitations of the research is a constraint that comes from customs, traditions, ethics and beliefs that are not possible for researchers to find the desired data.
8. Operational Definition of Terms or Definitions
Definition of terms or the operational definition is needed if it is predicted there will be differences in understanding or kekurangjelasan meaning of the term if the assertion is not given. Terms that need to be given emphasis are terms associated with basic concepts contained in the thesis, thesis, or dissertation. Criteria that a term containing the main concept is that if the term is closely related to the problem under study or research variables. The definition of the term conveyed directly, in the sense of not described its origin. The definition of the term is more focused on the understanding given by the researchers.
Definition of terms to form the operational definition of variables to be studied.Operational definition is a definition based on the properties of things that defined which can be observed. Indirectly it will appoint an operational definition of data-making tool suitable for use or reference to how to measure suatui variables. Examples of operational definitions of variables "arithmetic achievement" is competence in the field of arithmetic which include add, subtract, multiply, divide, and use a decimal. The preparation of the operational definition needs to be done because teramatinya concepts or constructs being investigated will facilitate measurement. In addition, the preparation of an operational definition allows other people do similar things so that what is done by the researcher open to be tested again by other people. (See Glossary)
9. Research Methods
Subjects contained in this chapter the research method most do not cover aspects (1) research design, (2) population and sample, (3) research instruments, (4) data collection, and (5) data analysis.
a. Design Research
A description of the design or design research that is used needs to be given to each type of research, especially experimental research. The research design is defined as a strategy to set the background research for researchers to obtain valid data in accordance with the characteristics of variables and research purposes. In experimental research, research design chosen was the most memungkinkkan researchers to control for other variables that allegedly participated effect on bound variables. Selection of research design in experimental research is always based on the hypothesis to be tested. In noneksperimental research, discussion in the research design section contains a description of the type of research conducted in terms of the purpose and nature, whether exploratory research, descriptive, explanatory, survey, or historical research, correlational, and causal comparison. In addition, the section also describes the variables included in the study and the nature of the relationship between these variables. (See some errors in the design penelitiian)
b. Population and Sample
The terms population and sample appropriately used when taking a sample of research conducted as a subject of research. But if the goal of research is all members of the population, would be more suitable term research subject, especially in experimental research. In the survey, data sources commonly called the respondent and in qualitative research informants or subjects referred to depending on how the data retrieval.Accurate explanations about the characteristics of the study population should be given for sample size and the way of uptake can be precisely determined. The aim is that the selected sample truly representative, in a sense to reflect the population accurately.Sample representativeness is the most important criteria in the selection of the sample in relation to the intention to generalize the results of the study sample of the population.If the state of the different samples with kakarteristik population, the greater the possibility of errors in generalizations. So, the things discussed in the Population and the sample is (a) the identification and the limits of the population, or the subject of research, (b) procedures and techniques of sampling, and (c) the size of the sample.
c. Research instruments
In this section presented the instruments used to measure the variables under study.After that then presented the data collection instrument development procedure or selection of equipment and materials used in research. In this way will be seen whether the instruments used in accordance with the variables measured, at least in terms of its content. A good instrument juag must meet the requirements of reliability. In the thesis, dissertation, especially, should have a part that explains the process of instrument validation. If the instruments used are not made by the researchers, there remains an obligation to report the level of validity and reliability of instruments used. Another thing that needs to be disclosed in the research instrument is a way of scoring or codes to each item question / statement. For tools and materials should be carefully noted the technical specifications of the equipment used and the characteristics of materials used.
In the exact sciences research instrument terms are sometimes seen as less appropriate because it covers the whole thing has not been used in research. Therefore, the research instrument section can be replaced with equipment and materials.
d. Data Collection
This section outlines (a) the steps taken by dab technique used to collect data, (b) the qualifications and the number of officers involved in the process of data collection, and (c) the implementation timetable of data collection. If researchers use another person as executor of data collection, needs to be explained how the selection and effort to prepare them to perform tasks. The process of getting permission to study, meet with local authorities, and other similar things do not need to be reported, although not to be missed in the process of implementation research.
e. Data Analysis
This section describes the type of statistical analysis used. Judging from the method, there are two kinds of statistics that can be chosen, namely descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. In inferential statistics contained parametrikdan nonparametric statistics. Selection of data analysis is largely determined by the type of data collected by fixed oriented goals to be achieved or about to be tested hypotheses. Therefore, the principal to be considered in the analysis is the accuracy of data analysis techniques, rather than sophistication. Some parametric statistical analysis techniques are more sophisticated and therefore capable of providing more accurate information when compared with similar analysis techniques in nonparametric statistics. Application of parametric statistics are appropriate must meet several requirements (assumptions), whereas the application of nonparametric statistics do not demand certain requirements.
In addition to the explanation of the types or data analysis techniques used, should also explain why his election. If the selected data analysis techniques are well known, then the discussion is not necessary at length. Conversely, if the data analysis technique used are not often used (less popular), then the description of the analysis needs to be given in greater detail. When used in this analysis should be mentioned computer programs, such as SPSS for Windows.
In the theory of scientific activities, suspected or temporary answer to a problem must use scientific knowledge (science) as the basis for arguments in assessing the problem. This is intended to obtain reliable answers. Before the researchers hypothesized shall examine the theories and research findings relevant to the issue under study presented at the foundation of theory or literature review. For theses and dissertations, the theory under study not only supports the theory, but also theories that are contrary to a frame of mind of researchers. Literature review contains two main things, namely the theoretical description of the object (variable) under study and the conclusions of the study which, among other arguments in the form of hypotheses have been proposed Chapter I.
To be able to provide a theoretical description of the variables studied, it is necessary to in-depth study of theory. Furthermore, the argument over the proposed hypothesis requires researchers to integrate theory was chosen as the basis of research with the results of the study of relevant research findings. Discussion of the results of the study was not conducted separately in a separate section. The materials on literature review can be raised from various sources such as research journals, dissertations, theses, theses, research reports, textbooks, papers, reports and discussion of scientific seminars, official government publications and other agencies. It would be better if the theoretical study and review of research findings based on primary literature sources, namely the contents of library materials based on research findings. Secondary literature sources can be used as support. For the dissertation, based on literature review it can be identified position and role of research being conducted in the context of the broader issues as well as contributions that may be given to the development of science-related. At the end of the literature review in thesis and dissertation should have a separate section that contains an explanation of the views or frame of mind that used by researchers who studied these theories. The selection of library materials that will be assessed based on two criteria, namely (1) the principle of currency (except for historical research) and (2) the principle of relevance. Currency principle is important because science is growing rapidly. An effective theory at one period may have been abandoned in the next period. With the currency principle, researchers can argue based on the theories that at that time considered the most representative. The same applies also to review research reports. The principle of relevance is needed to produce a literature review are closely related to the problems examined.
Library materials are included in the reference list should have been mentioned in the text. This means that library materials are only used as reading material but not referred to in the text are not included in the reference list. Conversely, all library materials mentioned in the thesis, thesis, and dissertation must be included in the reference list.Procedure for writing the reference list. Elements that are written in sequence include: 1.author's name written in this order: last name, first name, middle name, without academic degrees, 2. year of publication 3. title, including subtitle 4. city where the publishing, and 5. name of the publisher.